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Introduction

Introduction

In 2012, two soundings, CA 70 ( AAF II ) and CA 71 ( CGL I ), were opened in the southeastern area of Civitate A, where a linear arrangement of medium-sized rocks was uncovered. Both trenches then were extended and three more trenches, CA 72 ( AEG VI ), CA 73 ( ARR IV ), and CA 74 ( CAC I ) were opened in order to more fully reveal the rock feature first uncovered in CA 70 and CA 71. By the end of the summer, six lines of rocks, running roughly parallel and north-south, were revealed. The eastern-most line of rocks, running through CA 72 and CA 73, is robust and composed of rocks with integrated tile fragments, giving it the appearance of a load-bearing wall. The remaining five lines of parallel rocks are too insubstantial to be load-bearing but seem to partition the space. Within this area, high quantities of iron slag, as well as a number of forno, bellows, and crucible fragments, were found, suggesting that this area was associated with the smelting of

metal ores. Most materials date to the 7 th century BCE and appear contemporary with, or slightly earlier, than the materials found in the Orientalizing-Period Workshop (T 26).

In order to clarify the nature of the remains discovered in 2012, excavations were expanded in 2013. CA 72 ( AEG VII ) and CA 73 ( ARR V ) were both extended to the east and to the north of CA 72, CA 78 ( AJC V ) and CA 82 ( RDC I ) were opened, while to the south of CA 73, CA 76 ( LHS II ), CA 77 ( EC X ), and CA 79 ( EMO IV ) were opened. West of CA 79, CA 81 ( MLL I ) and CA 83 ( KRK VI ) were opened while CA 80 ( CLP I ) was opened off of the western edge of CA 74 ( CAC I ). Further evidence for architecture was found in CA 72, 73, 76, 77, and 79. Two roughly parallel and robust lines of rocks running north-south, which are parallel to the substantial rock line discovered in 2012, were found extending from CA 72 to CA 79, while an east-west running line of rocks connected these two north-south rock lines in CA 77 and 79, forming the southern wall of a rectilinear structure. An additional east-west

running line of rocks was found in CA 81 and CA 83, although this does not appear to connect to the east-west running rock line in CA 77 and 79. High quantities of slag were recovered from the western areas of excavation, while large amounts of bone were found in CA 78. Materials appear to be contemporary with those found in 2012, dating this structure to the 7 th century BCE.

Based on observations made from aerial photography, it appears that a rectilinear building with stone foundation walls was located in the eastern areas of excavation and attached to this building was some sort of internally-partitioned, light-framed structure, possibly a shed; the rectilinear building was uncovered in 2013 while the shed-like structure was found in 2012. The size of the rectilinear structure and the absence of many roofing tile fragments suggest that this building is an example of non-elite architecture, perhaps a domicile, with an attached industrial space. If this interpretation is correct, this would be the first example of non-elite domestic architecture found at Poggio Civitate.

In the 2014 season, excavations will be conducted approximately 20 meters to the east of the 2013 excavations, just north of a dirt road that transects the site and approximately 10 meters west of the south-western defensive fortifications of the 6 th century building, in order to try and discover additional examples of non-elite architecture contemporary with the 7 th century BCE complex of buildings; it was decided to excavate to the east of the building found in 2013 as the three known 7 th century buildings are located in this direction. Tesoro 59 will be opened for the following reasons:

1. To search for additional examples of non-elite architecture dating to the 7 th century BCE and contemporary with the three Orientalizing-Period buildings and the newly discovered structure in Civitate A.

2. To determine if industrial space is regularly attached to non-elite domestic space.

3. To better understand the stratigraphic relationship between the dirt road and the area directly to its north.

4. Given the proximity of this area to the defensive fortifications of the 6 th century courtyard building, which is approximately only 10 meters to the east, to search for further evidence of defensive works dating to the 6 th century BCE and to find additional evidence for the purposeful destruction of this building.

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Suggested Citation

Katharine R. Kreindler. "KRK VII (2014-06-27):3-12; Introduction from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 59/2014, ID:676". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/documents/19ad41f4-4a31-403f-a1f0-878a225f7d9e>

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