Open Context

August 4, 1994

A.M.

Excavated meters Y/14 and Y-Z/13 down to 185cm. The soil throughout was dark brown with large quantities of carbon. Some of the larger pieces of carbon were brought down for analysis (#27, p.177)

A massive amount of material was recovered, 32 latte boxes of pottery and bone. Although there was large quantities of material there were no full profiles found and the pottery seemed very fragmentory and mixed up. A full cassetta of tile and plaster was also recovered. Beneath the dark brown there was some greyer soil with flecks of carbon. An impasto base (#9) was found resting, upside down, on this soil but the layer does not seem to be a floor because it appeared uneven , sloping down to the north. The small protion of this soil which was excavated did produce material.

The Trench was swept for final photos and backfill.

19940159

19940159

19940129

19940117

19940117

19940127

19940127

19940133

19940133

19940126

19940126

19940116

19940116

19940164

19940164
  • Find 28
  • Supplemental found in dry brush
  • Y-Z/13-14
  • 170-185cm
  • Bucchero knob

final trench

Uncataloged Find Lis t

Object                          Grid           Depth       Page

worked bone                   baulktrim                        7

bronzetackshaft               baulktrim                        7

gorgonfrag of antefix         baulktrim                        11

painted pottery                 baulktrim                         11

square bronzr frag             baulktrim                         13

pithos frag w carbonized

seeds                       baulktrim                         13

painted creamware             baulktrim                         13

ridged impasto                   baulktrim                         15

incised bucchero rim           baulktrim                         17

poss. cut tooth                    baulktrim                        17

carbonized wood,cut?         Y-Z/13      110-120            19

incised impasto                  Y-Z/13      110-120             21

impasto handle w notches    Z/13         110-120             21

cut,carbonized wood             Y/14        110-120            21

frieze plaque carvetto             Y/15         110                 25

incised bucchero rim              Z/13        120-125            29

bronze pin shaft                    Y/13           125                29

rectangular pin shaft              Y/13           125                29

poss. vitrified plaster              Y/13         120-125           29

bronze                                  Y-Z/13      120-130           29

incised greyware rim               Y/16        100-115           31

incised impasto rim                 Y/18         118                31

Object                                   Grid          Depth          Page

creamware rim                       Y-Z/13-14    120-130            31

ridged impasto rim                     Y/13           123                37

incised bucchero rim                  Y/13           123                37

incised bucchero                        Y-Z/13      120-130           37

iron tuk 19940144

19940144
Y/14         baulktrim         39

painted creamware                      Y/16         baulktrim         39

ridged impasto rim                       Z/13         baulktrim         39

poss. ionicpottery                      Y-Z/18       125-140           39

ridge pole fragment                     Y-Z/18       125-135           43

? frieze plaque frag                     Y-Z/18       125-135            45

incised impasto                          Y-Z/16       130-140           47

Bronze sheet                              Y/18            122               49

ridged impasto                            Z/18-17         150               61

ionic pottery                                Z/18             153               61

slag                                            Y/18           150-170          65

sima carvetto frag                      Y-Z/19-20       105-120         65

coarseware vessel                      Y/17-18         120               65

slag                                            Z/18             141               71

ridged impasto rim                       Y/14             120-130         77

vitrified material w bronze             Y/13              130-135        79

antler frag                                   Y/13              130-135        79

ridged impasto ware                    Y/14              130               81

impasto w carination                    Z/14              120-135         81

Object                                       Grid               Depth          Page

incised bucchero                       Y-Z/13-14        120-130            81

impasto rim                               Y-Z/14            120-130            83

painted pottery                            Z/14              129                  85

incised buccheroid rim                 Z/14              120-130            87

incised bucchero rim                   Z/13               132                  87

incised impasto rim                    Y-Z/13-14        129                  87

slag                                          Z/13                127                  87

slag                                          Z/14                130                  87

grooved impasto rim                  Z/15                 136                  89

carbonized seed                       Z/16                140-150             89

vitrified material w bronze          Z/16                 140-150             89

slag                                        Y-Z/15              130-140             91

incised buccheroid rim              Y-Z/15             130-135             91

chalky pink stone                     Y-Z/15             130-140             93

lead cylinder                            Y-Z/15             130-140             93

covertilefrag w ridge                  Z/15                   147                93

incised bucchero rim                Z/14                  ca 135             93

ridged impasto rim                   Z/14                     135              95

incised buccheroid rim             Z/14                  130-140            95

ridged impasto rim                   Z/14                  130-140            95

impasto grooved rim                 Z/14                  130-140            95

cut bone                                 Y/14                   125-140           97

incised bucchero rim              Y-Z/14                  130-140           97

Object                                     Grid                  Depth              Page

ridged impasto                         Y/14                   125-140             97

painted creamware frag             Z/13                   135-140             103

ridged impasto rim                   Y-Z/13                 130-140             103

poss. ionic pottery                   Y-Z/13                 130-140             103

vitrified material w bronze          Y-Z/15                 140-150             107

incised bucchero                      Z/14                    140-145             109

slag                                        Y-Z/13-14             140-145             111

poss. ionic pottery                   Y-Z/13-14             140-145             111

ridged impsto rim                     Z/13                     140-145             111

slag                                        Y-Z/13-14              140-145             111

slag                                        Z/13                      145                   113

double rope handle                   Z/13                      148                    113

incised bucchero                     Y-Z/13                    138-148             113

painted creamware                  Y-Z/13-15                140-155             113

painted vessel frag                  Y-Z/13-15                140-155             112

unusual terracotta                   Y/14                       130-150             115

slag                                       Y/13                       151                   117

incised impasto rim                 Y/14                       baulktrim           117

ridged impasto                        Y/13                        140-145            117

terracotta strut                        Y/14                        124                   117

ridged impastp rim                  Y/13                         140-145            119

ridged impasto rim                  Y/13                         130-150            119

incised bucchero rim               Y/13                         130-145            125

Object                                    Grid                         Depth              Page

oinochoe handle base               Z/13-14                      130-155            125

incised bucchero                      Z/14                           157                  129

incised rim                              Y-Z/13-14                    155-160            129

incised impasto                       Y-Z/13-14                    155-160            129

incised bucchero rim                Y/14                           163                  133

incised impasto rim                  Z/15                            160-170           137

carbonized material w seeds?   Z/16                            160-170           137

incised pottery poss painted     Y/13-14                       155-160            137

bronze codder fin                     Z/15                             160-165           137

bronze coil                              Z/15-16                        160-165            137

ridged impasto                        Y-Z/15                          165-170            137

ridged impasto                        Y-Z/15                          170-180            141

ridged impasto                        Y-Z/16                          170-180            141

fenestrated vessel frag             Y/16                             170-175            141

ridged impasto                        Y-Z/15                          170-190            141

ridged coarseware rim              Y/13                             159                  143

incised impasto rim                  Y-Z/15-16                     170-180            143

incised bucchero                      Y-Z/15                         170-185             143

incised terracotta                      Z/16                            170-185             143

ridged impasto rim                    Y-Z/15                         170-185             145

ridged impasto rim                    Y-13                            158                   145

unusual terracotta                     Y-Z/15                         170-185             145

bronze                                      Y-Z/15                        170-185              145

Object                                     Grid                       Depth              Page

unusual terracotta                   Y-Z/16                     170-180              147

painted creamware                  Y/15                        160-185              149

slag                                       Z/14                         160                    149

ridged impasto                       Y/14                         160-185              151

slag                                      Z/14                          160                    151

ridged impasto rim                 Z/15                          160-185              151

incised impasto                    Y/14                          150-160               151

incised bucchero rim             Z/15                           120-175              153

incised bucchero rim             Y/15                           180-185              153

creamware rim                     Y-Z/14                         160                    153

bronze sheet                        Y/13-14                       160-170              157

ridged impasto                      Y/13-14                       160-170              157

ridged bucchero                    Y/13-14                        160-170             157

incised impasto                    Y/13-14                        160-170             159

incised bucchero                  Y/13-14                         160-165            161

grooved impasto                   Y/14                              160-165            163

incised impasto                    Z/13                               160-170           163

tondo                                   Z/16                               189                 165

ridged impasto                     Y-Z/13-14                        160-170           165

ridged buccheroid rim           Y/14                               170-180            169

ridged impasto rim               Y/14                                170-180           169

ridged bucchero                   Y/14                                170-180           169

impasto base                       Y/14                               175-185            169

Object                               Grid                        Depth             Page

incised bucchero                 Y/13-14                170-180             171

incised rim                          Y/13                     170-180            171

impasto base                      Y/13                      181                  171

conical foot                         Y/13                      178                  171

incised bucchero                 Y/13                      170-185           171

incised bucchero rim            Y/13                      170-185           173

ridged impasto rim               Y/13                      170-185           173

antler                                  Z/13                       170                 173

incised impasto rim              Z/13                      170-185           175

ridged impasto rim                Z/13                     170-185           175

incised impasto rim               Z/13                     170-185           175

Handle                                 Z/13                     170-185           175

Bronze                                Y-Z/13-14              170-185            175

Bronze                                Y-Z/13-14              170-185            175

ridged bucchero                   Y-Z/13-14              170-185            177

ridged bucchero                   Y-Z/13-14              170-185            177

Carbon                                Y-Z/13-14              170-185            177

Bucchero Knob                    Y-Z/13-14              170-185             177

perforated base                    Y-Z/13-14               170-185             177

Stratigraphic Summary

Due to previous excavation in T25, only the strata encountered below 110cm bd. will be summarized. only three distinct strata were excavated and as work progressed it became apparent that all the remaining strata sloped down to the north-east.

A stratum of yellow-brown soil was found across the entire trench. Only 10cm of this soil was preserved on the west end of the trench; but it sloped down to the east and was roughly 40cm thick in meter 16. However, in meters 17 and 18 it extended  even deeper and was still present at 190cm bd. - the final level of the trench for this season. This soil produced very little material. However, a variety of Upper Building terracottas were found - three frieze plaque types, raking sima and gorgon antefix fragments.

It should be noted that in the east baulk of meter 18, at roughly 140cm bd a thin stratum (less than 10 cm) of burnt, decayed plaster and some carbon was evident (see section p74). However, it faded out in the norht bulk section.

An anomalous stratographic feature was discovered in the noth baulk of meter 17. As excavation

proceeded, it became clear that there was a square section (75cm wide) of lighter soil with small stones and no evident ceramic material. The bottom of this feature was ar roughly 160cm bd. but the top was not easily discernable. This is possilbly a trench feature.

Beneath the yellow-brown soil in meters Y-Z/13-16 was a stratum of dark soil with heavy plaster inclusions and carbon. It was roughly 30cm thick and sloped down to the east. Three irregular lines of stones were found within this stratum - The first in meter 14 (p.149) and the other two in meter 16 (p.154). The lines in meter 16 were left in situ at the end of the season. It should be noted that this stratum seems to end at the eastern most stone line, and the yellow-brown soil is on the other side of the line. This stratum was very productive in terms of bone, pottery, and plaster, with very little tile. Portions of this stratum are preserved in the trench in meters Y-Z/15-16, where the floor level is 185cm bd.

The third, and final stratum excavated

this year was confined to the area of meters Y-Z/13-14. It was roughly 25cm thick (ca 160-185cm bd). The soil ws dark brown with heavy inclusions of carbon, much less plaster than the stratum described above. This soil was increadibly productive of both ceramic and bone. Beneath this stratum, the top layer of the next stratum was apparent in places. It was greenish-brown soil with plaster and carbon and may be associated with the dark brown soil with just carbon but the section (see p.130) suggests separate depostions.

Pottery Summary

This season's work in T25 produced a massive amount of material, occupying five tables in the magazino. The majority of the material was recovered from the two burn strata. Due to the quantity and preservation of this material it was all saved and laid out on two tables in the magazino, according to fabric. The material from the different burn strata were isolated on separate tables. The material from the yellow-brown soil and baulk trim were boxed in Rap Box. The pottery was all fragmentary and highly mixed/disturbed. The shards from the burn strata often show signs of burning, but are not heavily worn. Many diagnostic pieces were recovered also. The pottery in the yellow-brown stratum was much less frequent and more worn.

Percentage of ceramic material from the three strata :

yellow-brown soil                              10%

darkbrown with plaster & carbon        45%

darkbrown with carbon                      45%

Diagnostic percentage by fabric per region:

Baulktrim: coarseware/pithos - 80% bodysherds

9% rims

9% handles

2% bases

impasto - 85% bodysherds

11% rims

4% bases

orange/redware - 80% bodysherds

17% rims

3% handles

bucchero/buccheroid - 60% bodysherds

20% rims

15% bases

5% handles

creamware - 70% bodysherds

30% rims

yellow-brown soil: coarseware/pithos - 90% body sherds

6% rims

3% bases

1% handles

impasto - 90% bodysherds

4.5% rims

4% bases

0.5% handles

orange/redware - 97% bodysherds

2% bases

1% rims

bucchero/buccheroid - 90% bodysherds

10% rims

creamware 100% bodysherds

Darkbrown with plaster and carbon:

coarseware/pithos - 60% bodysherds

18% rims

14% bases

8% handles

impasto - 87% bodysherds

6.5% rims

6% bases

0.5% handles

orange/redware - 80% bodysherds

13% rims

4% bases

3% handles

bucchero/buccheroid - 55% bodysherds

25% rims

8% bases

12% handles

creamware - 76% bodysherds

8% rims

8% bases

8% handles

greyware -  82% bodysherds

18% handles

Darkbrown with carbon :  coarseware/pithos - 80% bodysherds

12% rims

5% bases

3% handles

impasto - 70% bodysherds

20% rims

9% bases

1% handles

orange/redware - 95% bodysherds

3.5% rims

0.5% bases

1% handles

bucchero/buccheroid - 60% bodysherds

16% bases

15% rims

8% handles

1% lids

creamware - 90% bodysherds

5% rims

5% handles

greyware - 50% bodysherds

25% rims

25% bases

Diagnostic Profiles pp.211 - 225:

Bone Summary:

Bone was found throughout the trench. It was usually fragmentary and burnt occassionally. A few fragments of shell were also found and included with the bone. The largest quantities of bone came from the two burn strata.

Baulktrim produced 9/10 of a litre of bone as well as a few cut pieces of bone

The yellow-brown soil produced 1 1/8 litres of bone. Cut bone pieces were also found in this strata.

The darkbrown plaster/carbon soil produced 5 1/4 litres of bone fragments. Cut bone and other fragments were frequent including p.31#8, p.79#5, p.103#2, p.125#5, p.147#15.

The darkbrown carbon soil produced the most bone - 7 litres. Several pieces of cut bone and antler were also found - p-157#2, p.159#9, p.163#18, and p.171#6.

Metal summary:

Metals like bronze were found throughout the trench, but they were most prominent in the darkbrown plaster carbon soil.

Small pieces of bronze were bagged and wighed for each stratum:

Baulktrim - 1gram.

yellow-brown soil - less than 1gram

darkbrown carbon/plaster soil - 2 grams

darkbrown soil with carbon - 1 gram

Although there were a few metal finds in all strata the best preserved and greatest variety came from the darkbrown soil wiht carbon and plaster. Bronze pieces include a bronze fishhhook (p.119#10), a bronze sheet with nail holes (p.133#2),  bronze shaft with hole (p.137#1), and a bronze codderpin (p.137#5). An iron tuck (p.39#1) and a lead cylinder (p.93#4) were also found in this stratum. Numerous fragments of bronze slag and vitrified material with bronze were excavated in this stratum as well (p.81#7 & #9, and p.89#11, p.183#3 for example). It should be noted that a bellows pipe fragment was also found (p.73#4).

Supplemental Finds:

19940173

  • Find #1
  • Y-Z/13-14
  • incomplete profile of a bucchero kantharos
  • built from pottery table in 1996
Property or Relation Value(s)
Temporal Coverage
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Suggested Citation

Alexis M. Christensen. "AMC I (1994-08-04):167-231; August 4, 1994 from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 25/1994, ID:105". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/documents/253bddb8-fd06-44e8-9068-fcecd650fc8d>

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Murlo

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