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Final Summary

Tesoro Trench 19

Tesoro Trench 19 was excavated in 1972 by Anne Booth ( see AB I ) and Jenifer Neils.  This area lies to the north of the north wall of the Upper Building and is a continuation to the east of T-18, the area excavated by Eva Rystedt in 1971.  The area excavated comprises approximately Grids D-I/31-53 and J-51-54 ( ).

Architecture

Excavation was concentrated in the area of the heavy tile fall - grids G-I/31-47.  This area showed little strata variation:  humus (topsoil); brownish soil mixed with small chipped rocks and small terracotta fragments; and the heavy tile fall layer.

The area excavated, in particular the tile fall, contained the following:

  1. 17 Gorgon antefixes (2 with complete backer cover tile) and fragments of many others; also many backer fragments
  2. Frieze plaque fragments, primarily banquet, few horserace
  3. Scattered cavetto sima fragments
  4. Pan tiles (2 complete), many with incised letters
  5. Cover tiles, many with incised letters
  6. Pithos fragments, including a half-complete pithos
  7. Ridgepole tile fragments

At the east end of the trench, the tile layer began to

slope downward (cir. 75 cm below topsoil) and move to the north.  In grids G-I/45-46, a second layer of smaller tiles, possibly a continuation of the first, was excavated.  However, in the rest of the trench, digging stopped below the upper tile fall.  At the 47th meter where the tile fall stopped, a possible stone foundation running N-S was uncovered ( see photos on p. 62 ).

Another line of stones, prallel to the first and approx. 2 meters to the east, appeared in grids H-I/49.  The southern portion of this possible foundation remains covered by a stone heap, so it is not possible to determine its extent.  The stone pile which covered the foundations in grids G-I/53 was removed; this wall extends to the W wall.

Pottery

Sherds were found in all strata: mostly coarse pottery in the topsoil and brown soil layer, with bucchero farther down.  The greatest concentration of sherds was found in grids E-F/40-47.  Here the pottery was mixed with small, chipped stones and a heavy concentration of bones.  It was found at the same level as the tile fall directly to the north.  The finer ware was found predominantly in the northern grids G-I, including Italo-Corinthian, molded, and incised bucchero.  Part of a heavy concentration of

reddish-orange fine-grained ware was excavated in grids G-J/50-54.

Pottery stored in magazzino:

  • 3 cassetti of coarseware
  • 5 cassetti of gray and orangeware
  • 1 cassette of bucchero
  • 1 cassette of fine painted ware

Note: This pottery summary does not include the area excavated by Anne Booth.  See AB I, p. 83-86 and p. 171-177 for her summaries.

North Extensions, Trench 18 and 19

The north extension of Trench 18 comprises grids J-M/28-30, and the north extension of Trench 19 comprises grids J-M/31-36.  The northernmost part of these trenches was not excavated due to rocks at the surface (M/28-36).

Architecture

The strata in T-19 include: humus (topsoil); a dark brown soil layer with small chipped stones; a yellowish tan soil layer; and a reddish brown tile layer.  At the level of the reddish brown stratum, part of a N-S wall foundation of heavy stones and a few tile fragments was uncovered in the 31st meter.  A possible cross wall running E-W, consisting of small stones and many tile fragmnets, was left at the south end of this trench: its full width remains unexcavated.

The tile layer (heavy concentration of small, tightly-packed terracotta fragments and carbon) and the large sections of pithoi directly above were lifted.  The trench was left at the level of a hard, yellow pavement (?) - very uneven.

The strata in T-18 include: humus (topsoil); a brown soil stratum; yellow soil stratum; and a red stratum with heavy carbon.  At the level of the red stratum, a N-S wall foundation of heavy stones was found in the 28th meter.  The possible wal lfoundation running E-W, found at the south end of T-19, extends across the south end of T-18, J/28-30.  Scattered tile fragments were found in the yellow and red strata.

Pottery

T-19 did not produce a great quantity of pottery - mostly coarseware from the brown and yellow strata.  Finer sherds came from the tile layer, and directly above.  A few nearly complete vases were uncovered in L/35.  A heavy concentration of pithos fragments was found directly above the tile layer.

T-18 had very heavy concentrations of fine bucchero in the yellow ( JN III, p. 175 ) and red strata ( JN II ).  Coarser ware predominated in the upper strata.  The yellow soil layer produced a large quantity of black bucchero sherds - about 7 nearly complete stemmed, handleless cups (to be restored in 1973).

The reddish soil layer also produced large quantities of sherds - predominantly burned red.  This pottery is to be cleaned and restored in 1973. For finds see JN II.

Note:  Under this reddish soil layer is a heavy carbon layer and possibly a wooden beam in J-L/30 which has been left covered until 1973.

Summary: Bucchero "compotes," T-18 North Extension, Yellow stratum. See JN III, p. 171-173.

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Suggested Citation

Jennifer Neils. "JN I (1972-08-07):184-190; Final Summary from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 19/1972, ID:77". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/documents/46fed62f-0de1-457b-8925-32b957da65a9>

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