Open Context

Final Summary for T-26 1984

Although the T-26 1984 season did not succeed in exposing the entire perimeter of the building, cuts to the north, south, east, and west did yield important information as to its architectural structure, decoration, and function, as well as a number of interesting small finds.

Taken in combination with information provided by T-25 1984 (see CT I and CT II ), the workshop hypothesis continues to be supported, although on quite a different scale than previously thought.  Note that excavation in T-25 this season yielded a deteriorated floor and column bases determined to belong to the same building.  T-26 and T-25 were joined without leaving a bualk up but will still be kept separate for recording purposes.

All floor, column bases, tile falls, and unfired cover tiles were cleared off of the protective sand and earth fill from 1983 in order to be drawn by the architect.  Robber damage was quite extensive, with two tile concentrations in particular suffering heavy damage (V/65, VW/62).  Efforts were made to salvage complete dimensions with little success.  Other tiles left "in situ" to be drawn this year were less affected.

After uncovering previously excavated cover tiles in SW/70-73 and treating damaged areas with PVD, further work was undertaken in ST/70-73 and YZ/72-75 to further determine their area.  Tiles were found in YZ/72-73 in varying states of preservation with a number showing heavy burning.  Again, little fallen tile appeared over them, although plaster was often in evidence.  Footprints and sandalprints were also found here. All newly exposed tiles were painted with a 20% PVA emulsion.

In Y-Z/74-75, a column base surrounded by floor was found.  The base was reasonably well preserved and supported a tile, stone, and heavy burn

concentration to the north.  Floor here was well-preserved with a heavy carbon layer and often badly burnt and disintigrated tiles just above it.  Floor to the south of the base was much less well-preserved due to root damage and erosion.

Meters R-W/59-61 were removed with the original intent of further defining the northern perimeter of the buliding.  Heavy plaster packing was found over what may be rock packing in these meters.  Most important here was a red burn stratum that extended throughout RST in 60 and parts of 59 and 61.  This continued into P and Q and may appear on the PQ/61 baluk.  Heavy concentrations of "red" and black bucchero and fineware were found here and included fluted bowls with Potnia Theron handles, shallow cups, bowls, lids, and a great amount of incised and otherwise decorated pottery, as well as Ionic bowl fragments.  Pithos was also very common here (see Pottery Summary, AC II p. 131 ).

Surrounding this red burn was a plaster and tile stratum with claylike soil, "stone packing", and varying amounts of burn at floor level.  No true floor was found here.  Several pieces of worked bone and antler were found here (see AC I p. 173 , p. 218 , p. 256 , and p. 302 ).

In alpha-beta/49-61, the tile fall was lifted with evidence of burning and vitrification.  A base was found, surrounded by poorly preserved floor.  Cuts in V-gamma/57-58 yielded a new base and defined another one.  Floor here ranged from poorly preserved in beta-gamma/57-58 to well-preserved in X-alpha/57-58 to heavy plaster that wasn't cleared down in V-W/57-58.  Resting directly on the floor on the baulk in YZ/57 was a pithos with a possible full profile preserved.  In YZ/57-58, a number of stacked cover tiles were also found on the floor.  After being drawn, both were brought down.  At least eight full widths were preserved, as well as several lengths.  Akroterion, cut, and worked bone was also

found here, as well as fineware.  in J/57, a large flat-topped piece of plaster was found extending in to T-25 and left "in situ".

In O-Q/74-76, a tile fall was cleaned down which included several tiles preserving complete dimensions, including most of a covertile and an almost complete pan tile resting on a heavy burn layer.  Deeper excavation in O-Q/74/76 was undertaken to try to determine the reason for the floor level differentiation around the base in Q/77 (see AC I {page number not provided} ).  Several levels were apparent here, beginning with a soil and mortar floor level; a brown soil with a whitish plaster layer (possibly an earlier floor or sub-flooring) underneath; and finally a rock-fill with clay soil and carbon flecks.  A bronze fibula was found here at a sub-floor level (see AC I p. 261 ).

Excavation to the east was undertaken with the dual purpose of uncovering statue fragments and further defining the eastern perimeter of the buliding.  A number of heads were found in these meters, as well as numerous statue fragments, sima, and akroterion.  Some were found at high levels, but many were found directly over the floor and often in a plaster-tile concentration.  Additionally, in MN/86-87, seven pantiles were found laid out over the floor.  Only two preserved usable widths.

It is interesting to note that heavy plaster packing was most often present in the northern meters and negligible to the south.  Eight new column bases were found here.  In MNO/85, a great deal of ivory was found.  Most was small and badly damaged, but several incised and worked pieces were found.  The bases farthest south were the least well-preserved, with the base in S/87-88 peculiarly tilted to the east, possibly as a result of a ground shift.  Floor here

ranges from poorly preserved to non-existent.  Also of interest was the vast amount of tile found in these eastern meters at high levels.

A main objective of the 1984 season was to uncover as many column bases as possible to be recorded by the architect.  To this end, some cuts in T-26 may appear rather irregular.  A cut in FE/61-62 was made and uncovered a badly deteriorated base surrounded by poor floor.  N ofloor was evident to the south of the base.

At the end of the 1984 season, thirty-nine bases were identifiable in T-26 and T-25.  Although no new line of bases was found to the north or south, excavation yielded three new bases to the north, twelve in the center and ten to the south.  No further small stones associated with the northern bases were found.  Further cleaning down in alpha-gamma/65-71 yielded a very fragmentary base in alpha/70.  No bases were found in beta-gamma/65 or alpha-beta/66-67, having apparently eroded away.  Floor here was either very poorly preserved or non-existent.

Because of the vast amount of material recovered during the last part of the season, much of it was stored to be studied in 1985, particularily that coming from areas where further work will be done.  This includes pottery, ivory ,bone, bronze, 1.5 casseti of vitrified tiles, 1 cassetta of multi-edged plasters, numerous tiles, and architectural fragments.

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Suggested Citation

Abbey Collins. "AC IIB (1984-08-03):152-159; Final Summary for T-26 1984 from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 26/1985, ID:119". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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