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Strata Summary

The strata of Tesoro 23: 1979 extentions [meters C-II/13-16] consists of four distinct layers.  in both location and production of material, the four layers are, for the most part, consistent throughout the area excavated.

1. Topsoil and dark brown layer - The topsoil and dark brown layer in T23: 1979 extentions is uniformly 15-20 cms. in depth.  It is very stony and consists of dark brown soil which is filled with roots.  The topsoil and dark brown layer produced no material other than infrequent tile fragments.  It was, however, at the transition from this layer to the tile layer [see below] thta many fragments of ivory were excavated.

2. Tile layer - The tile layer in T23: 1979 extentions is uniformly 30-40 cms. in depth - and thus

from the ground level it begins at a depth of 15-20 cms. and terminates at a depth of c.50-60 cms.  It consists of a redish soil which contains a large amount of carbon and frequent tile fragments.  Also, it is notable that the tile layer contains quantities of concentrated stucco and plaster [reed impressions are clear].  A few large stones, whose location displayed no patter, were found throughout meters C-GG/13-16.  however, at a depth of c.60 cms. in meters HH-II/13 a heavy rock packing was encountered.  This concentration of stones displays the qualities of a packing rather than a wall - although this will be difficult to discern until excavation continues to the west in 1980.

The tile layer produced the vast majority of the finds from T23: 1979 extentions.  tile, pottery [orange [red] ware, course ware, bucchero, gray ware, and various soft yellow fabrics], architectural terracotta [statue fragments, akroteria, ridge pole fragments, etc.], bronze, glass, worked

bone, worked wood, and worked ivory were all excavated from the tile layer.  All of T23: 1979 extentions\' complete pottery profiles were found in this layer.

3. Burn layers - The burn layers are the only inconsistent part of the T23: 1979 extentions\' strata.  Throughout the area excavated [C-II/13-16*, a burn layer appears directly below the tile layer.  Though it is heavier in certain meters than in others, it is uniformly c.10 cms. in depth.  It is a black soil which is heavily burned and contains a large quantity of burned wood.

A second burn layer appears throughout most of the area excavated.  when it does appear, it is uniformly 5-10cms. in depth [from the ground level it begins at a depth of c. 80 cms].  Its consistency is similar to that of the first burn layer.

A third burn layer appears in some of the area

excavated.  It was particularly noticable in meters BB-II/13-14.  Where it does appear, it is uniformly 5-10 cms. in depth [from the ground level it begins at a depth of c.1 meter].  Its consistency is similar to that of the first and second burn layers.

The occurence of the burn layers in T23: 1979 extentions does not parallel the occurence of material.  the only notable exception to this is the large section of burned wood on which a concentration of pottery was resting in meter GG-13.  The burn layers, regardless of the depth of the particular layer, produced frequent pottery finds and other ceramics such as rocchetti and spindle whorls.  The pottery is similar to that found in the tile layer which lies above.  very little tile was found in the burn layers - although more was found in the first three layers than in the second and third burn layers.

4. Yellow-gray layer - The yellow gray layer in T23: 1979 extentions begins directly beneath the first of the three burn layers and continues to the floor of the trench [Galestra].  Therefore, it begins at a depth of c.60-65 cms. and terminates at a depth of c.1 meter 40 cms.  The second and third burn layers ran through the yellow-gray layer.  The yellow-gray layer consists of a yellow-gray, granulated, clay-like soil which contains sporadic fragments of carbon.  the yellow-gray layer produced some pottery [similar to the pottery found in the tile and burn layers], but very little tile.  Some bronze was found in this layer.

From a depth of c.1 meter 10 cms. to the floor level, the yellow-gray layer in meters HH-II/14-16 consists of a heavy rock packing.  In meters HH-II/13, this rock begins at a depth of c.60 cms.

Tesoro 23: 1979 extensions was excavated to a depth of c.1 meter 40 cms.  throughout the trench.  the only exception is meters HH-II/13-16, where a rock packing was encountered at a depth of c.1 meter 10 cms. [dpending on the meter].  Clay and stone [no bedrock was found] now comprise the floor of the trench.

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Suggested Citation

Matthew Caras. "MC III (1979-08-04):212-229; Strata Summary from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 23 Extension/1980, ID:391". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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