Open Context

T-23 1980 Extension Summary of the Cuts


0-15 cm

  • Tile: 1 cassetta
  • Pottery: 1 sherd
  • Soil: Brown, rooty soil throughout
  • Finds: -----
  • General: -----

Cut 1

15-25 cm

  • Tile: 2 cassette
  • Pottery: 1 box
  • Soil: Yellow soil devoid of tile until HH-II/9-10-11.  Red soil in II/10 at 25 cm
  • Finds: -----
  • General: Bronze slag, bone, and shell encountered

Cut 2

25-40 cm

  • Tile: 7 cassette
  • Pottery: 5 boxes
  • Soil: Red soil (probable burn layer) with tile throughout.  Carbonized wood throughout though mostly concentrated in II/10, HH/11.  Large carbonized wood fragments in HH/10.
  • Finds: Spindle whorl, carved ivory and ivory inlays (~12), gorgon head, worked stone, pan tile with Etruscan chi, iron finial
  • General: Bronze slag found in abundance in II/10, HH/10-11 border.  Shell, bronze, plaster, pithos, and glass slag found.  The tile layer which was cleaned down consisted of 3 cassette.

Cut 3

40-60 cm

  • Tile: 20 cassette
  • Pottery: 13 boxes
  • Soil:  Orange-reddish soil with carbonized wood; the amount of tile increases over the previous cuts; stones in HH/9 mixed with tile.  An abundance of plaster in HH/10, soil is reddish in all but FF-GG/10.
  • Finds:  Ivory pieces (~61), loom weights (~3), spindle whorl, bronze nails (5), bronze tacks (3), carbonized seeds and beans, pottery with incised lion, obsidian flakes (2), incised bone (2), soapstone "button", iron finial
  • General: The spatial orientation of the ivory pieces in the soil was checked; bronze concentrated in HH/10, II/10.  Stones in FF/10 at 55 cm.  Bronze, plaster, glass, slag, pithos encountered; bone concentrated in HH/9, shell also found.

Cut 4

60-80 cm

  • Tile: 50 cassette
  • Pottery: 23 boxes
  • Soil: EE-FF/9 showed red-brown soil, rest of trench appears to be gray-brown.  GG/11 at 80 cm is yellow-gray and devoid of material.  Tile in large quantities in EE-FF/9 and then diminishes until GG-II/9-11 where there is a great quantity again.  Carbonized wood throughout, appears to be a burn layer at 80 cm.
  • Finds: Bronze nails (4), ivory (~44), rocchetto, loom weight (2), sima rosette, carbonized beans and seeds, painted pottery (4), bronze tack, spindle whorl (2), ridgepole tile, whet stone, akroterion, pantile with length and width, stamped bucchero, rabbit head, tiles with letters
  • General: The cut does not appear to be totally a burn layer, though there is carbonized wood present.  Large stones in FF/11.  Tile layer in GG-II/9-11 mostly small tiles, some large fragments.  A burn layer beneath the tile. Fine pottery found among the tile. Pithos rim and belly, shell, glass slag and bronze found.

Cut 5

80-100 cm

  • Tile: ~15 cassette
  • Pottery: ~29 boxes
  • Soil: Yellow-gray soil throughout except for HH-II/9-10-11, where soil becomes darker.  Carbonized burn layer at 1.0 m throughout the trench.  Little tile in this cut, though more pottery than previous cuts, especially in GG-HH-II/9-10-11 beneath the tile layer that was in these meters at 60-80 cm.  Carbonized wood directly beneath the tile at 80 cm.
  • Finds:  Carbonized beans and seeds, painted pottery (9), ridged coarseware (2), covertile with antefix end, bronze pinheads, pan tile with paint, stone missle, bronze nail, stamped rocchetto, rabbit head (joins to head of previous cut), molded bucchero, stamped bucchero, incised bucchero (2), bucchero stamped with griffins
  • General: The potthery from beneath the tile layer at 60-80 cm in GG-II/9-11 very similar to previous cuts, though is more fine and painted ware.  Concentration of bone in GG/10.  Bronze and pithos found throughout.  Large stones in EE/11.  Bronze from this cut is much more decomposed than bronze of the previous cuts.

Cut 6

1.0 m - 1.3 m

  • Tile: 2 cassette
  • Pottery: 9 boxes
  • Soil:  Yellow clay-like soil, though darker than the previous cut in GG-HH/9-11.  Wedge of dark red soil in GG/10 at 1.15 m.  GG-II show different layers of yellow soil, which can be distinguished within the cut.  Little tile or pottery; yellow-gray soil beneath the stone packing
  • Finds:  Stamped bucchero (4), fineware lace handle, painted pottery (5), stamped orangeware (2), iron nail shaft, carbonized nut
  • General:  Carbonized burn dips to 1.15 m under stones in EE/11.  Stone packing (1 stone thick) in GG-HH-II/11.  Most of the pottery in GG-II/9-11 is fine orangeware.

Cut 7

1.3-1.6 m

  • Tile: 1/10
  • Pottery: 1/10
  • Soil: Yellow-gray sandy soil in EE-FF/9-11 with galestra at 1.6 m.  GG, HH have galestra throughout.  Tile and pottery almost totally absent.
  • Finds: Stamped orangeware rocchetto
  • General: The only find came from a pocket of brownish soil within the cut.  Bronze slag in EE/10 at 1.55 m
Descriptive Variable Value(s)
Document Type Trench Book Entry
Trench Book Entry Date 1980-07-06
Entry Year 1980
Start Page 46
End Page 55
Title T-23 1980 Extension Summary of the Cuts
Property or Relation Value(s)
Temporal Coverage
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
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Suggested Citation

Mark Tobey. "MT II (1980-07-06):46-55; T-23 1980 Extension Summary of the Cuts from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 23/1981, ID:419". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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